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|Title||Vitamin D status, nutrition and growth in HIV-infected mothers and HIV-exposed infants and children in Botswana.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Tindall AM, Schall JI, Seme B, Ratshaa B, Tolle M, Nnyepi MS, Mazhani L, Rutstein RM, Steenhoff AP, Stallings VA|
BACKGROUND: Poor vitamin D status is a global health problem and common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in high-income countries. There is less evidence on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and nutrition and growth in HIV-infected and -exposed children in low- and middle-income countries.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the vitamin D status in Batswana HIV-infected mothers and their children, differences among HIV-infected mothers and between HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children, and associations between vitamin D and disease-related outcomes, nutrition, and growth.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of HIV+ mothers and HIV-exposed infants and unrelated children (1-7.9 years). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured, among other nutritional indicators, for mothers, infants and children. Vitamin D status for HIV-infected mothers and children, and an immune panel was assessed. History of HIV anti-retroviral medications and breastfeeding were obtained. Data were collected prior to universal combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy.
RESULTS: Mothers (n = 36) had a mean serum 25(OH)D of 37.2±12.4ng/mL; 11% had insufficient (<20ng/mL), 17% moderately low (20.0-29.9ng/mL) and 72% sufficient (≥30ng/mL) concentrations. No infants (n = 36) or children (n = 48) were vitamin D insufficient; 22% of HIV- and no HIV+ infants had moderately low concentrations and 78% of HIV- and 100% of HIV+ infants had sufficient status, 8% of HIV- and no HIV+ children had moderately low concentrations and 92% of HIV- and 100% HIV+ children had sufficient concentrations. HIV+ children had significantly lower length/height Z scores compared to HIV- children. Length/height Z score was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D in all children (r = 0.33, p = 0.023), with a stronger correlation in the HIV+ children (r = 0.47 p = 0.021). In mothers, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with CD4% (r = 0.40, p = 0.016).
CONCLUSIONS: Results showed a low prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Botswana. Growth was positively correlated with vitamin D status in HIV-exposed children, and HIV+ children had poorer linear growth than HIV- children.
|Alternate Journal||PLoS ONE|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC7425960|