Renal Scarring in the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) Trial.

TitleRenal Scarring in the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) Trial.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsMattoo TK, Chesney RW, Greenfield SP, Hoberman A, Keren R, Mathews, iv R, Gravens-Mueller L, Ivanova A, Carpenter MA, Moxey-Mims M, Majd M, Ziessman HA
Corporate AuthorsRIVUR Trial Investigators
JournalClin J Am Soc Nephrol
Volume11
Issue1
Pagination54-61
Date Published2016 Jan 7
ISSN1555-905X
Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial were to evaluate the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We present a comprehensive evaluation of renal scarring outcomes in RIVUR trial participants.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled 607 children aged 2-71 months with grade 1-4 VUR diagnosed after a first or second febrile or symptomatic UTI. Study participants received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or placebo and were followed for 2 years. Renal scarring was evaluated by baseline and follow-up (99m)technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scans that were reviewed independently by two blinded reference radiologists.

RESULTS: At the end of the study, 58 (10%) of 599 children and 63 (5%) of 1197 renal units had renal scarring. New renal scarring did not differ between the prophylaxis and placebo groups (6% versus 7%, respectively). Children with renal scarring were significantly older (median age, 26 versus 11 months; P=0.01), had a second UTI before enrollment (odds ratio [OR], 2.85; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.38 to 5.92), were more likely to be Hispanic (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.13 to 4.34), and had higher grades of VUR (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.56 to 5.0). The proportion of new scars in renal units with grade 4 VUR was significantly higher than in units with no VUR (OR, 24.2; 95% CI, 6.4 to 91.2).

CONCLUSIONS: Significantly more renal scarring was seen in relatively older children and in those with a second episode of febrile or symptomatic UTI before randomization. Preexisting and new renal scars occurred significantly more in renal units with grade 4 VUR than in those with low-grade or no VUR. Antimicrobial prophylaxis did not decrease the risk of renal scarring.

DOI10.2215/CJN.05210515
Alternate JournalClin J Am Soc Nephrol
PubMed ID26555605
PubMed Central IDPMC4702233