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|Title||The Prevalence, Intensity, Assessment, and Management of Acute Pain in Hospitalized Children in Botswana.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Matula ST, Irving SY, Deatrick JA, Steenhoff AP, Polomano RC|
|Journal||Pain Manag Nurs|
|Date Published||2022 Jan 02|
BACKGROUND: There is very limited clinical and observational data on acute pain experienced by children in sub-Saharan Africa.
AIMS: To report the prevalence and intensity of acute pain, pain management practices, and describe associations between acute pain outcomes, children's and parents or guardian's demographics in hospitalized children aged 2 months to 13 years in Botswana.
DESIGN: A descriptive correlational prospective observational study using five repeated cross-sectional samples.
SETTINGS: Two referral hospitals in Botswana.
PARTICIPANTS: The sample size included 308 children and 226 parents or guardians. Data were collected between November 2018 and February 2019 from children, their parents or guardians (<7 years child), and the health record for pain documentation and treatment.
MEASURES: Pain was measured using Faces Pain Scale-Revised for children ≥7 years, revised Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale for children <7 years and numeric rating scale for parents or guardians.
RESULTS: There are 1,290 data points for children of which 1,000 were children <7 years and 999 data points for parents or guardians of children <7 years were used in analysis. Fifty percent of children <7 years were in pain using the revised Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale, whereas parents indicated 46% to be in pain. The pain prevalence for children ≥7 years was estimated at 54%. Pain was documentated at a rate of 54 % on the health records. Acetaminophen was most common analgesic across all age groups. Univariate associations of child <7 years pain intensity was statistically significant (p ≤ .05) for weight, diagnosis, residence, and parent relationship. Parents reported pain intensity was statistically significant (p ≤ .05) for child sex, weight, diagnosis, residence, surgery, parent or guardian age and education. Only age and surgery were significant for children ≥7 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Acute pain prevalence and intensity among hospitalized children in Botswana is low.
|Alternate Journal||Pain Manag Nurs|