The Prevalence, Intensity, Assessment, and Management of Acute Pain in Hospitalized Children in Botswana.

TitleThe Prevalence, Intensity, Assessment, and Management of Acute Pain in Hospitalized Children in Botswana.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsMatula ST, Irving SY, Deatrick JA, Steenhoff AP, Polomano RC
JournalPain Manag Nurs
Date Published2022 Jan 02
ISSN1532-8635
Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is very limited clinical and observational data on acute pain experienced by children in sub-Saharan Africa.

AIMS: To report the prevalence and intensity of acute pain, pain management practices, and describe associations between acute pain outcomes, children's and parents or guardian's demographics in hospitalized children aged 2 months to 13 years in Botswana.

DESIGN: A descriptive correlational prospective observational study using five repeated cross-sectional samples.

SETTINGS: Two referral hospitals in Botswana.

PARTICIPANTS: The sample size included 308 children and 226 parents or guardians. Data were collected between November 2018 and February 2019 from children, their parents or guardians (<7 years child), and the health record for pain documentation and treatment.

MEASURES: Pain was measured using Faces Pain Scale-Revised for children ≥7 years, revised Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale for children <7 years and numeric rating scale for parents or guardians.

RESULTS: There are 1,290 data points for children of which 1,000 were children <7 years and 999 data points for parents or guardians of children <7 years were used in analysis. Fifty percent of children <7 years were in pain using the revised Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability scale, whereas parents indicated 46% to be in pain. The pain prevalence for children ≥7 years was estimated at 54%. Pain was documentated at a rate of 54 % on the health records. Acetaminophen was most common analgesic across all age groups. Univariate associations of child <7 years pain intensity was statistically significant (p ≤ .05) for weight, diagnosis, residence, and parent relationship. Parents reported pain intensity was statistically significant (p ≤ .05) for child sex, weight, diagnosis, residence, surgery, parent or guardian age and education. Only age and surgery were significant for children ≥7 years.

CONCLUSIONS: Acute pain prevalence and intensity among hospitalized children in Botswana is low.

DOI10.1016/j.pmn.2021.11.012
Alternate JournalPain Manag Nurs
PubMed ID34987004