Predicting Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Renal Failure in Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infected Children.

TitlePredicting Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Renal Failure in Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infected Children.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsMcKee RS, Schnadower D, Tarr PI, Xie J, Finkelstein Y, Desai N, Lane RD, Bergmann KR, Kaplan RL, Hariharan S, Cruz AT, Cohen DM, Dixon A, Ramgopal S, Rominger A, Powell EC, Kilgar J, Michelson KA, Beer D, Bitzan M, Pruitt CM, Yen K, Meckler GD, Plint AC, Bradin S, Abramo TJ, Gouin S, Kam AJ, Schuh A, Balamuth F, Hunley TE, Kanegaye JT, Jones NE, Avva U, Porter R, Fein DM, Louie JP, Freedman SB
Corporate AuthorsPediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee(PEMCRC), Pediatric Emergency Research Canada(PERC)
JournalClin Infect Dis
Date Published2019 May 24

BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are leading causes of pediatric acute renal failure. Identifying hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) risk factors is needed to guide care.

METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, historical-cohort study to identify features associated with development of HUS (primary outcome) and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) (secondary outcome) in STEC-infected children without HUS at initial presentation. Children <18 years who submitted STEC-positive specimens between January 2011 and December 2015 at a participating study institution were eligible.

RESULTS: Of 927 STEC-infected children, 41 (4.4%) had HUS at presentation; of the remaining 886, 126 (14.2%) developed HUS. Predictors of HUS included younger age (OR: 0.77; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.85/year), leukocyte count ≥13.0x103/μL (2.54; 1.42, 4.54), higher hematocrit (1.83; 1.21, 2.77/5% increase) and serum creatinine (10.82; 1.49, 78.69/1 mg/dL increase), platelet count <250 ×103/μL (1.92; 1.02, 3.60), lower serum sodium (1.12; 1.02, 1.23/1 mmol/L decrease), and intravenous fluid administration initiated ≥4 days following diarrhea onset (2.50; 1.14, 5.46). A longer interval from diarrhea onset to index visit was associated with reduced HUS risk (0.70; 0.54, 0.90). RRT predictors included female sex (2.27; 1.14, 4.50), younger age (0.83; 0.74, 0.92/year), lower serum sodium (1.15; 1.04, 1.27/mmol/L decrease), higher leukocyte count ≥13.0x103/μL (2.35; 1.17, 4.72) and creatinine (7.75; 1.20, 50.16/1 mg/dL increase) concentrations, and initial intravenous fluid administration ≥4 days following diarrhea onset (2.71; 1.18, 6.21).

CONCLUSIONS: The complex nature of STEC infection renders predicting its course a challenge. Risk factors we identified highlight the importance of avoiding dehydration and performing close clinical and laboratory monitoring.

Alternate JournalClin. Infect. Dis.
PubMed ID31125419