A population-based study of risk factors for heart failure in pediatric and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

TitleA population-based study of risk factors for heart failure in pediatric and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsChang JC, Xiao R, Knight AM, Kimmel SE, Mercer-Rosa LM, Weiss PF
JournalSemin Arthritis Rheum
Date Published2020 May 03

OBJECTIVES: The increased relative risk of heart failure (HF) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is greatest at younger ages, but the etiology remains unclear. We identified risk factors for HF in children and adults with SLE and evaluated associations between SLE manifestations and HF.

METHODS: Incident SLE cases without preceding HF were identified using Clinformatics DataMart® (OptumInsight, Eden Prairie, MN) US claims data (2000-2015), and categorized by age of SLE onset (children 5-17, young adults 18-24, adults 25-44 years old). The primary outcome was the first HF ICD-9-CM diagnosis code (428.x), categorized as early-onset (< 6 months) or delayed-onset. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with early or delayed-onset HF. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify time-dependent associations between the onset of SLE manifestations and incident HF.

RESULTS: There were 523 (2.3%) HF cases among 1,466 children, 2,163 young adults and 19,349 adults age 25-44 with SLE. HF in children and young adults was early-onset in 50% and 60% of cases, respectively, compared to 35% of cases in adults 25-44 years old. There was a temporal association between incident myopericarditis and valvular disease diagnoses and early-onset HF, whereas nephritis and hypertension were more strongly associated with delayed-onset HF. Black race remained independently associated with a 1.5-fold increased HF risk at any time.

CONCLUSION: Hypertension remains an important traditional CV risk factor across all ages and should be managed aggressively even in younger patients with SLE. Cardiac dysfunction due to acute cardiac manifestations of SLE may contribute to the very high relative incidence of early HF diagnoses among younger SLE patients. Therefore, future prospective studies will need to address heterogeneity in the types and severity of heart failure in order to determine etiology and which patients should be monitored.

Alternate JournalSemin. Arthritis Rheum.
PubMed ID32446021