Polygenic Ara-C Response Score Identifies Pediatric Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Need of Chemotherapy Augmentation.

TitlePolygenic Ara-C Response Score Identifies Pediatric Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Need of Chemotherapy Augmentation.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsElsayed AH, Cao X, Mitra AK, Wu H, Raimondi S, Cogle C, Al-Mansour Z, Ribeiro RC, Gamis A, Kolb EAnders, Aplenc R, Alonzo TA, Meshinchi S, Rubnitz J, Pounds S, Lamba JK
JournalJ Clin Oncol
PaginationJCO2101422
Date Published2022 Jan 06
ISSN1527-7755
Abstract

PURPOSE: To establish a patient-specific polygenic score derived from cytarabine (ara-C) pathway pharmacogenomic evaluation to personalize acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ara-C-pathway genes were analyzed with outcome in patients from the multicenter-AML02 trial (N = 166). Multi-SNP predictor modeling was used to develop 10-SNP Ara-C_SNP score (ACS10) using top SNPs predictive of minimal residual disease and event-free survival (EFS) from the AML02-cohort and four SNPs previously associated with ara-C triphosphate levels in the AML97 trial. ACS10 was evaluated for association with outcomes in each clinical trial arms: the standard low-dose ara-C (LDAC, n = 91) and augmented high-dose ara-C (HDAC, n = 75) arms of AML02 and the standard Ara-C, daunorubicin and etoposide (ADE) (n = 465) and the augmented ADE + gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO; n = 466) arms of AAML0531 trial.

RESULTS: In the standard LDAC-arm of AML02 cohort, the low-ACS10 score group (≤ 0) had significantly worse EFS (ACS10 low high hazard ratio [HR] = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.45 to 5.43; = .002) and overall survival (OS; HR = 2.98; 95% CI, 1.32 to 6.75; = .009) compared with the high-ACS10 group (score > 0). These results were validated in the standard-ADE arm of AAML0531, with poor outcome in the low-ASC10 group compared with the high-ACS10 group (EFS: HR = 1.35, 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.75, = .026; OS: HR = 1.64, 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.22, = .002). Within the augmented arms (AML02-HDAC and AAML0531-ADE + GO), EFS and OS did not differ between low- and high-ACS10 score groups. In both cohorts, patients with low-ACS10 consistently showed a 10-percentage point improvement in 5-year EFS with augmented therapy (AML02-HDAC or AAML0531-ADE + GO arms) than with standard therapy (AML02-LDAC or AAML0531-ADE arms).

CONCLUSION: Patients with low-ACS10 score experienced significantly poor outcome when treated on standard regimen. Augmentation with either high-dose ara-C or GO addition improved outcome in low-ACS10 group. A polygenic ACS10 score can identify patients with unfavorable pharmacogenetic characteristics and offers a potential for an elective augmented therapy option.

DOI10.1200/JCO.21.01422
Alternate JournalJ Clin Oncol
PubMed ID34990262