Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

TitleInvasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSaxena S, Gee J, Klieger S, Kajon A, Petersen H, Zaoutis TE, Fisher BT
JournalJ Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
Date Published2017 Jun 15

Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD). Data on IFD burden in pediatric patients are limited. We aimed to determine the incidence and outcome of IFD in a large cohort of pediatric patients who underwent SOT.

Methods: A single-center cohort of pediatric patients who underwent SOT between 2000 and 2013 was assembled retrospectively. The patients were followed for 180 days after transplant or until death to determine the presence or absence of IFD. The 2008 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group Consensus Group criteria were used to define IFD as proven or probable. The incidence of IFD, all-cause mortality rate, and case-fatality rate at 180 days were calculated.

Results: Among 584 pediatric patients who underwent SOT, 13 patients sustained 14 episodes of IFD (candidiasis, aspergillosis, and mucormycosis). The overall incidence was 2.2% (14.3 IFD events per 100000 patient-days). The IFD rates according to transplant type were 12.5% (1 of 8) (heart/lung), 11.4% (4 of 35) (lung), 4.7% (8 of 172) (liver), 0% (0 of 234) (kidney), and 0% (0 of 135) (heart). Three patients with IFD (2 lung and 1 heart/lung) died, and all these deaths were deemed likely attributable to the IFD; the case-fatality rate was 21.4% (3 of 14).

Conclusions: The overall incidence of IFD in these pediatric SOT recipients was low but varied across transplant type, with heart/lung and lung recipients having the highest IFD rate. Given the attributable case-fatality rate, the risk of death resulting from IFD is potentially high. More data on groups at higher risk, such as lung transplant recipients, are needed to guide targeted antifungal prophylaxis.

Alternate JournalJ Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
PubMed ID28992290