Incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii and Adverse Events Associated With Pneumocystis Prophylaxis in Children Receiving Glucocorticoids.

TitleIncidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii and Adverse Events Associated With Pneumocystis Prophylaxis in Children Receiving Glucocorticoids.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBasiaga ML, Ross ME, Gerber JS, Ogdie A
JournalJ Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
Volume7
Start Page283
Issue4
Pagination283-289
Date Published2018 Dec 3
ISSN2048-7207
Abstract

Background: Antimicrobial prophylaxis is indicated to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in profoundly immunosuppressed children. The incidence of PJP infection in children with chronic glucocorticoid exposure is unknown, and PJP prophylaxis has been associated with adverse events. We hypothesized that PJP infection is rare in children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cancer, or a transplant history who are using chronic glucocorticoids and that those exposed to PJP prophylaxis are more likely to experience a cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction or myelosuppression than unexposed patients.

Methods: This study involved a retrospective cohort from the Clinformatics Data Mart Database (OptumInsight, Eden Prairie, MN). We identified patients ≤18 years of age who received at least 2 prescriptions for a systemic glucocorticoid within a 60-day period and excluded patients with a history of PJP infection, an oncologic diagnosis, transplant, or HIV/AIDS. PJP prophylaxis exposure was identified by using national drug codes. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction or myelosuppression was identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9), codes. We used a discrete time-failure model to examine the association between exposure and outcome.

Results: We identified 119399 children on glucocorticoids, 10% of whom received PJP prophylaxis. The incidences of PJP were 0.61 and 0.53 per 10000 patient-years in children exposed and those unexposed to PJP prophylaxis, respectively. In a multivariable model, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction (odds ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 2.62-3.92) and myelosuppression (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.20).

Conclusions: PJP infection was rare in children using glucocorticoids chronically, and PJP prophylaxis-associated cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions and myelosuppression are more common. The use of PJP chemoprophylaxis in children without HIV/AIDS, cancer, or a transplant history who are taking glucocorticoids chronically should be considered carefully.

DOI10.1093/jpids/pix052
Alternate JournalJ Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
PubMed ID28992298