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|Title||Haemodynamic profiles of children with end-stage heart failure.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Chen S, Dykes JC, McElhinney DB, Gajarski RJ, Shin AY, Hollander SA, Everitt ME, Price JF, Thiagarajan RR, Kindel SJ, Rossano JW, Kaufman BD, May LJ, Pruitt E, Rosenthal DN, Almond CS|
|Journal||Eur Heart J|
|Date Published||2017 Oct 07|
Aims: To evaluate associations between haemodynamic profiles and symptoms, end-organ function and outcome in children listed for heart transplantation.
Methods and results: Children <18 years listed for heart transplant between 1993 and 2013 with cardiac catheterization data [pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), right atrial pressure (RAP), and cardiac index (CI)] in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database were included. Outcomes were New York Heart Association (NYHA)/Ross classification, renal and hepatic dysfunction, and death or clinical deterioration while on waitlist. Among 1059 children analysed, median age was 6.9 years and 46% had dilated cardiomyopathy. Overall, 58% had congestion (PCWP >15 mmHg), 28% had severe congestion (PCWP >22 mmHg), and 22% low cardiac output (CI < 2.2 L/min/m2). Twenty-one per cent met the primary outcome of death (9%) or clinical deterioration (12%). In multivariable analysis, worse NYHA/Ross classification was associated with increased PCWP [odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-1.07, P = 0.01], renal dysfunction with increased RAP (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, P = 0.007), and hepatic dysfunction with both increased PCWP (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P < 0.001) and increased RAP (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12, P < 0.001). There were no associations with low output. Death or clinical deterioration was associated with severe congestion (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2, P = 0.002), but not with CI alone. However, children with both low output and severe congestion were at highest risk (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5, P = 0.03).
Conclusion: Congestion is more common than low cardiac output in children with end-stage heart failure and correlates with NYHA/Ross classification and end-organ dysfunction. Children with both congestion and low output have the highest risk of death or clinical deterioration.
|Alternate Journal||Eur. Heart J.|