Guideline for Antibacterial Prophylaxis Administration in Pediatric Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

TitleGuideline for Antibacterial Prophylaxis Administration in Pediatric Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsLehrnbecher T, Fisher BT, Phillips B, Alexander S, Ammann RA, Beauchemin M, Carlesse F, Castagnola E, Davis BL, L Dupuis L, Egan G, Groll AH, Haeusler GM, Santolaya M, Steinbach WJ, van de Wetering M, Wolf J, Cabral S, Robinson PD, Sung L
JournalClin Infect Dis
Date Published2019 Nov 02
ISSN1537-6591
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Bacteremia and other invasive bacterial infections are common among children with cancer receiving intensive chemotherapy and in pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Systemic antibacterial prophylaxis is one approach that can be used to reduce the risk of these infections. Our purpose was to develop a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for systemic antibacterial prophylaxis administration in pediatric cancer and HSCT patients.

METHODS: An international and multi-disciplinary panel was convened with representation from pediatric hematology/oncology and HSCT, pediatric infectious diseases (including antibiotic stewardship), nursing, pharmacy, a patient advocate and a CPG methodologist. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to generate recommendations based on the results of a systematic review of the literature.

RESULTS: The systematic review identified 114 eligible randomized trials of antibiotic prophylaxis. The panel made a weak recommendation for systemic antibacterial prophylaxis for children receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Weak recommendations against the routine use of systemic antibacterial prophylaxis were made for children undergoing induction chemotherapy for ALL, autologous HSCT and allogeneic HSCT. A strong recommendation against its routine use was made for children whose therapy is not expected to result in prolonged severe neutropenia. If used, prophylaxis with levofloxacin was recommended during severe neutropenia.

CONCLUSIONS: We present a CPG for systemic antibacterial prophylaxis administration in pediatric cancer and HSCT patients. Future research should evaluate the long-term effectiveness and adverse effects of prophylaxis.

DOI10.1093/cid/ciz1082
Alternate JournalClin. Infect. Dis.
PubMed ID31676904