Early childhood antibiotic utilization for infants discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit.

TitleEarly childhood antibiotic utilization for infants discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsFlannery DD, Passarella M, Mukhopadhyay S, Dhudasia MB, Gerber JS, Lorch SA, Hennessy S, Puopolo KM
JournalJ Perinatol
Date Published2022 Apr 05
ISSN1476-5543
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine antibiotic utilization for NICU infants, as compared to non-NICU infants, in the first 3 years after birth hospital discharge.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study using data from Medicaid Analytic Extract including 667 541 newborns discharged from 2007-2011. Associations between NICU admission and antibiotic prescription were assessed using regression models, adjusting for confounders, and stratified by gestational age and birth weight.

RESULTS: 596 999 infants (89.4%) received ≥1 antibiotic, with a median of 4 prescriptions per 3 person-years (IQR 2-8). Prescribed antibiotics and associated indication were similar between groups. Compared to non-NICU infants (N = 586 227), NICU infants (N = 81 314) received more antibiotic prescriptions (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.08,1.08)). Similar results were observed in all NICU subgroups.

CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic utilization in early childhood was higher among infants discharged from NICUs compared to non-NICU infants.

DOI10.1038/s41372-022-01380-y
Alternate JournalJ Perinatol
PubMed ID35383276
Grant ListK08HS027468 / / U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) /