Comparison of Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention and Control Activities and Resources Between Low-/Middle- and High-income Countries.

TitleComparison of Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention and Control Activities and Resources Between Low-/Middle- and High-income Countries.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsVillanueva P, Coffin SE, Mekasha A, McMullan B, Cotton MF, Bryant PA
JournalPediatr Infect Dis J
Volume41
Issue3S
PaginationS3-S9
Date Published2022 Mar 01
ISSN1532-0987
Abstract

BACKGROUND: The growth of antimicrobial resistance worldwide has led to increased focus on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, although primarily in high-income countries (HIC). We aimed to compare pediatric AMS and IPC resources/activities between low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and HIC and to determine the barriers and priorities for AMS and IPC in LMIC as assessed by clinicians in those settings.

METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to clinicians working in HIC and LMIC healthcare facilities in 2020.

RESULTS: Participants were from 135 healthcare settings in 39 LMIC and 27 HIC. Formal AMS and IPC programs were less frequent in LMIC than HIC settings (AMS 42% versus 76% and IPC 58% versus 89%). Only 47% of LMIC facilities conducted audits of antibiotic use for pediatric patients, with less reliable availability of World Health Organization Access list antibiotics (29% of LMIC facilities). Hand hygiene promotion was the most common IPC intervention in both LMIC and HIC settings (82% versus 91%), although LMIC hospitals had more limited access to reliable water supply for handwashing and antiseptic hand rub. The greatest perceived barrier to pediatric AMS and IPC in both LMIC and HIC was lack of education: only 17% of LMIC settings had regular/required education on antimicrobial prescribing and only 25% on IPC.

CONCLUSIONS: Marked differences exist in availability of AMS and IPC resources in LMIC as compared with HIC. A collaborative international approach is urgently needed to combat antimicrobial resistance, using targeted strategies that address the imbalance in global AMS and IPC resource availability and activities.

DOI10.1097/INF.0000000000003318
Alternate JournalPediatr Infect Dis J
PubMed ID35134034
PubMed Central IDPMC8815833